Solutions

The DMAX reactor has been used to treat PFAS-impacted groundwater. Experiments conducted with the scaled-up prototype enhanced contact plasma reactor demonstrated that at the rate of ~1 gallon per minute (gpm), PFOA concentrations decreased 90% to below regulatory limits. The reactor was also effective in transforming short-chain PFAS (C5 – C7). Co-contaminants (e.g., CT, PCE, and TCE) do not impact reactor efficiency.

Results with the bench-scale enhanced contact plasma reactor can be found in Stratton et al., Environ.Sci.Technol., 2017, 51(3), pp.1643-1648, where it was demonstrated that our plasma-based treatment process is superior in terms of removal and mineralization efficiencies of PFOA and PFOS compared to leading alternative technologies: sonolysis, activated persulfate, and electrochemical treatment including the existing DC-driven plasma treatment in O2 bubbles. Cost estimates for 75% removal of PFOA (initial concentration of 95 ng/L) and PFOS (initial concentration of 135 ng/L) using activated carbon, our plasma-based process, and the current top-performing alternative, sonolysis, are shown below.

Process Contaminant Treatment Costs (millions $/kg)
Activated Carbon --Primary method in current use
PFOA
PFOS
5.5
4.4
Plasma
PFOA
PFOS
2.6
1.5
Sonolysis-- Current top preforming alternative
PFOA
PFOS
190
320

Other Solutions Currently Under Investigation

  • Industrial plants with wastewater streams containing PFASs or other difficult-to-degrade surfactants
  • Municipal wastewater treatment plants
  • De-foaming